Transformer explosion and fire result from break down of insulation caused due to over–current‚ over– voltage or short circuit. Another cause of explosion or fire is de-gradation of insulation like decay of the transformer oil due to moisture or ageing or decomposition. Once the insulation drops below a threshold value an electric arc is generated. The temperature of the oil increases and oil decomposes leading to generation of ignitable gases and pressurization of the oil tank. As a result the transformer tank or on load tap changer explodes.
There are two modes of operation viz Transformer Explosion Prevention Mode and Transformer Fire Extinguishing Mode
When an internal fault takes place large amount of flammable gases are formed in the transformer tank. As a result the gas relay closes and the electric breaker switches off. There is a pressure build-up inside the tank due to the thermal inertia. Once the pressure exceeds the set value of the pressure relief valve (PRV) the system relives the pressure by draining 10% of oil from the transformer and thereby preventing an explosion and fire. Subsequently the hot oil is cooled by injecting the Nitrogen gas.
When the transformer is on fire, the fire detectors operate along with the gas relay and which trips the electric breaker. As a result the system operates to drain the oil and inject nitrogen gas so as to sufficiently cool the transformer thereby extinguishing the fire and prevent any re-combustion. The system is recommended as per the Indian Electricity Rules for all transformers and reactors of oil capacity above 2000 litre.
The most vulnerable area on a floating roof tank is the rim seal area. Stored product vapor will collect in the rim and with air it is providing a hazardous mixture. Lightning or sparks can cause a fire to occur. As the fire is hidden by the tank wall, the presence of a detection system is of utmost importance. As it is relatively simple to extinguish an incipient fire, Saval developed a combined detection AND an extinguishing system, built-into one unit.
The CFI rim seal protection system is a fully integrated modular system, which utilizes an integral detection system – so no separate detection systems such as electric linear heat detection or separate pneumatic detection tube is required.
The CFI system uses 316 stainless steel distributions piping in combination with glass bulb activated stainless steel sprayers to detect and extinguish the fire. The system is detection and extinguishing system in one, which is developed to detect and extinguish the fire in a very early stage.
The system is recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards, approved by Engineers India Ltd and VdS Germany. The extinguishing agent CF3I is approved as a clean agent by the Ministry of Environment and Forests Govt of India and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) USA.
Fire protection with sprinkler systems. Sprinklers are simple devices that are individually operated by the heat from a fire. When a fire starts a plume of hot gases rise to the ceiling if a sprinkler is present, a glass bulb or solder link gets hot and at a specific temperature (typically 68°C) breaks, releasing a cap and allowing water to flow carefully controlled droplets which penetrate the fire plume and cool the burning material to below its ignition point, thus controlling the fire. Only the sprinkler(s) directly over the fire are operated.
The sprinklers are connected to pipe work, usually filled with water, which is supplied either from the water mains or from a storage tank via a pump. When a sprinkler operates, the flow of water in the pipe work operates a flow switch which in turn operates an alarm system.
The flow of water is small, usually less than 1/100th of the water used by the Fire and Rescue Service.
Sprinklers do not go off accidentally and are only triggered by real fires. They are also very reliable and only 1 sprinkler in 16,000,000 exhibits any form of manufacturing defect. Sprinklers save lives, buildings, stock, assets and jobs. They also help prevent carbon gases by reducing fires.
Fire protection with water mist technologies When space is limited or standard water sprinklers pose a risk to people or equipment, water mist sprinkler systems are an effective alternative. Water mist works by enveloping the fire with fine water droplets and breaking the combustion cycle. The mist creates a large surface area of water droplets, increasing cooling and controlling the hazard.
By discharging water through special nozzles at high pressure, the mist reduces the amount of water used and the damage caused. Acting in a similar way to gas systems, water mist extinguishes fires in obstructed locations normally inaccessible for standard systems.The technology is free from environmentally hazardous gases and potentially dangerous compressed gas.
Keeping valuable items dry with gas suppression. While sprinklers provide excellent protection to nearly all buildings, water can seriously damage their contents.
In areas containing computer rooms, communications equipment or data storage, water ingress can cause as much damage as fire. What’s more, irreparable harm to your equipment, data loss and downtime can leave your business counting the cost of lost business and an impaired reputation.
Gas suppression systems provide the fire protection you seek without the risk of damaging your vital equipment. Using the right agent
Passive fire protection products includes cable coatings, penetration seal systems qualified under the most rigid industry standards for fire, flood, pressure, and radiation resistance. TSPL specializes in Fire Stops, Penetration Seals, Fire Wrap, and Rigid Fire Barriers specifically developed for power, chemical processing, and heavy industrial applications. In addition to our extensive product line, we offer installation and technical services.
System has been designed to stop fires on electrical cable, electrical cable and PVC Pipe penetrations and joints. By combining fire stopping, fire retarding, and fireproofing materials and methods, this complete system has been engineered to stop that loss. The most effective products at achieving compartmentalization comprise our line of fireproofing and fire stopping materials and chemicals.
Compartmentalization is the mandatory requirement in all building codes and fire insurance regulations to prevent a fire from spreading to other building sections. Fire protection coating spray for electrical cables Fire, smoke and gas tight cable penetration seals and fire stopping for walls and floors.
The ultimate cable spraying fire protection material Coating protects electrical cables from spread of flame and also Fire Rates cable for 38 minutes (1100 Deg C) and 52 minutes (750 Deg C)
Fire stopping products dependant on regional applications.
The innovative range of Thin Film Intumescent Fire proofing coatings for the protection of Structural Steel, vessels and tanks.
Distributed fiber-optic sensing presents unique features that have no match in conventional sensing techniques. The ability to measure temperatures and strain at thousands of points along a single fiber is particularly interesting for the monitoring of elongated structures such as pipelines, flow lines, oil wells and coiled tubing.
Sensing systems based on Brillouin and Raman scattering are used for example to detect pipeline leakages, verify pipeline operational parameters, and prevent failure of pipelines installed in landslide areas, optimize oil production from wells and detect hot-spots in high-power cables. Recent developments in distributed fiber sensing technology allow the monitoring of 60 km of pipeline from a single instrument and of up to 300 km with the use of optical amplifiers.
New application opportunities have demonstrated that the design and production of sensing cables is a critical element for the success of any distributed sensing instrumentation project. Although some telecommunication cables can be effectively used for sensing ordinary temperatures, monitoring high and low temperatures or distributed strain presents unique challenges that require specific cable designs. This contribution presents advances in long range distributed sensing and in novel sensing cable designs for distributed temperature and strain sensing. The paper also reports a number of significant field application examples of this technology.
Flow lines, pipelines or gas-lines often cross hazardous environmental areas, from the point of view of natural exposures such as landslides and earthquakes, and from the point of view of third-party influences such as vandalism or obstruction. These hazards can significantly change the original structural functioning of the flow line, leading to damage, leakage and failure with serious economic and ecologic consequences. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the pipeline itself can induce additional wearing or even damage. The structural and functional monitoring can significantly improve pipeline management and safety.
1. Prevent the failure.
2. In time, detect the problem and its position and
3. Undertake maintenance and repair activities in time.
Thus the safety is increased, maintenance cost optimized and economic losses decreased. Typical structural parameters to be monitored are strain and curvature while the most interesting functional parameters are temperature distribution, leakage and third-party intrusion. Since the flow lines are usually tubular structures with kilometric lengths, structural monitoring of full extent is an issue itself. The use of discrete sensors, short- or long gauge is practically impossible, because it requires installation of thousands of sensors and very complex cabling and data acquisition systems raising the monitoring costs. Therefore, the applicability of discrete sensors is rather limited to some chosen cross-sections or segments of flow line, but not extended to full-length monitoring.
The use of modern, state of art waste oil sludge treatment equipment allows large financial gains to be made on sludge treatment projects when equipment purchase and operating costs are set against the value of the recovered oil. These advantages are now well proven world over where all refinery crude oil storage tank cleaning projects now include a sludge treatment / oil recovery phase. The system has been used at British Petroleum, Texaco, Esso, Shell and many more refineries.
Typically waste crude oil sludge from pits and tanks can contain between 70% and 90% hydrocarbon and the hydrocarbons contents from tanks is often 90%.
The TSPL system can recover 95% of hydrocarbons in the sludge, so based on an average 80% oil content of which 95% can be recovered and a conversion rate of six barrels / cubic meter each cubic meter will contain 4.5 barrels of recoverable oil.
1M³ of sludge X 80% oil content X 95% recovery X 6 barrels / M³ = 4.56 barrels of recovered oil
Using the above calculation it can be seen that a tank with a 4000 M3 of waste oil sludge contains as 24,000 barrels of oil of which 18240 barrels is recoverable oil with a market value of 50 USD per barrel will have 192000 USD worth of oil that goes back into the refinery system.